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Working Principle and Operation of Rock Drill
Jul 20, 2018

Rock drills are tools used to directly mine stone. It drills blastholes on the rock formations to place explosives to blast the rocks to complete the mining of stone or other stonework.

In addition, the rock drill can also be used as a breaker to break down hard layers such as concrete. Rock drills can be divided into four categories according to their power sources: pneumatic rock drills, internal combustion rock drills, electric rock drills and hydraulic rock drills.


Basic classification:

    Rock drills can be divided into four categories according to their power sources: pneumatic rock drills, internal combustion rock drills, electric rock drills and hydraulic rock drills.


1. Internal combustion rock drill

The internal combustion rock drill does not need to replace the internal parts of the machine head, just move the handle as required to operate. It has the advantages of convenient operation, more time saving, labor saving, fast cutting speed and high efficiency. Holes are drilled in the rock, which can be vertically downwards, horizontally upwards less than 45° and vertically down to the deepest hole up to six meters. Whether it is in high mountains or flats, whether it is working in a hot area of 40° or a cold region of minus 40°, this machine has a wide range of adaptability.


The internal combustion rock drill has the functions of mining, drilling, building construction, cement pavement, tarmac and other cracking, crushing, tamping, shovel and other functions. It is widely used in mining, construction, fire fighting, geological exploration, road construction, quarrying, Construction, defense engineering, etc.


Second, Electric Rock Drill

The hammer is used to drive the hammer to impact the steel through the crank-link mechanism to smash the rock. The powder discharging mechanism is used to discharge the stone chips, and the internal combustion type utilizes the principle of the internal combustion engine to drive the piston to impact the steel brazing and to hammer the rock through the explosive force of the gasoline. Applicable to construction sites without power supply and no gas source. The hydraulic type relies on hydraulic pressure to impact the steel by inert gas and impact body to hammer the rock. When the impact mechanism of these rock drills is in the return stroke, the rotating mechanism forces the steel to rotate the angle, so that the bit changes position and continues to chisel the rock. Through the explosive force of the diesel fuel, the piston is impacted on the steel brazing, so that it continuously impacts and rotates, and the stone discharging mechanism is used to discharge the stone chips, so that the blasthole can be chiseled.


Third, the pneumatic type uses compressed air to drive the piston forward in the cylinder, so that the steel is drilled and rocked, which is the most widely used.Y24, YT28 Rock Drill


Fourth, the hydraulic rock drill power head structure consists of three parts: the main engine, the pump station and the console. Large working range, high reliability and simple operation;



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DTH Drilling Rig: with rotation and impact. The rotary motion provides rotational power from the rig outside the hole and is transmitted to the down-the-hole hammer through the drill pipe, thereby driving the down-the-hole hammer to rotate. The impact movement provides compressed air or high-pressure water from the drilling rig outside the hole, and the pressure is transmitted to the down-the-hole hammer through the hollow drill pipe. The latent hole hammer converts the energy contained in the pressure medium into the impact energy of the reciprocating motion, acting on the drill bit, with The drill is deep and deep. Drilling speeds are generally faster than rotary drilling rigs, but slower than top hammer rigs. The advantage is that deeper holes can be made and the speed is constant because the impact power does not decrease as the hole depth increases. The cuttings are carried by air or water from the loop between the drill pipe and the wall of the hole.


Top hammer rig: with rotation and impact. Both the rotation and the impact are provided by the drill outside the hole. The impact always acts on the top of the drill pipe. As the depth of the drill increases, the drill pipe lengthens and the impact power is transmitted to the bottom of the hole. Therefore, the drilling depth will generally not exceed 20 meters, but also to 30 meters, but rarely, it is also very slow. Drill cuttings are also carried out with compressed air or water.


Rotary drilling rig: only rotate, drilling only by rotating under certain propulsion conditions. The drill bit in the figure is a roller drill, which generally drills a relatively large rock hole. There is also a rotary drill, which is a diamond cutter, or a tool made of other relatively hard materials, used to cut stones in the formation. Usually, the drilling speed of such a drilling machine is relatively slow, but the advantage is that it can be deep and any geological conditions can be passed, and the drilling straightness is not affected.


working principle:

      The rock drill is operated according to the principle of impact crushing. When working, the piston performs high-frequency reciprocating motion and continuously impacts the shank. Under the action of the impact force, the wedge-shaped drill head crushes the rock and cuts it into a certain depth to form a dent. After the piston is retracted, the drill turns a certain angle, the piston moves forward, and when the hammer tail is impacted again, a new dent is formed. The fan-shaped rock between the two dimples is shredded by the horizontal component generated on the bit. The piston continuously impacts the shank and continuously inputs compressed air or pressurized water from the center hole of the drill to discharge the slag out of the hole, thereby forming a circular drill hole of a certain depth.


Operating procedures:


1. Check the integrity and rotation of each component (including rock drill, bracket or rock drilling rig) before drilling, add necessary lubricating oil, check the airway, whether the waterway is unblocked, and whether the joints are firm.


2. The top of the work surface is called the top of the work, that is, check the top plate and the second gang near the work surface for live rock and turquoise, and make necessary treatment.


3. The position of the blasthole with a flat working surface should be drilled beforehand to prevent slipping or blasthole displacement.


4. It is strictly forbidden to dry the eyes. It is necessary to adhere to the wet rock drilling. When operating, first open the water, then open the wind, stop the wind first, then turn off the water. Start with low speed when opening your eyes, and drill at full speed after drilling to a certain depth.


5. The brazing personnel are not allowed to wear gloves when drilling.


6, when using the gas leg to drill the eye, pay attention to the standing position and position, must not rely on the body to pressurize, but can not stand under the drill bit in front of the rock drill to prevent the broken bit.


7. If abnormal sound is found in the rock drilling, if the powder discharge water is not normal, stop the inspection, find out the cause and eliminate it before continuing to drill.


8. When exiting the rock drill or replacing the drill rod, the rock drill can run at a slow speed, paying attention to the position of the rock drill of the rock drill, avoiding the automatic fall of the drill rod and injuring people, and closing the gas path in time.


9. When using the air-leg rock drill to drill rock, it is necessary to firmly push the top to prevent the top from slipping and hurting people.


10. When using the upward rock drill to shrink the bracket, the drill rod must be held to prevent the drill rod from falling automatically.


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